Friday, March 13, 2020
6 SAT Essay Examples to Answer Every Prompt SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. "But wait!" I hear you cry. "Can you do that on the new SAT essay? IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t the point of the essay that youÃ¢â¬â¢re supposed to be using information from the passage in your answer, which you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about ahead of time?" The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of these reliable types of evidence that can be used to answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. feature image credit: 1 to 9 mosaic, cropped/Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. Before You Continue If you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. Why You Can Prep SAT Essay Examples Before Test Day The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s claim TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re all around the same length (650-750 words) TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty goodidea ahead of time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the time to analyze and write about complex techniques. Because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples thatÃ¢â¬â¢ll be likely found across persuasive passages about many different issues. Naturally, for each passage you're going to want to play to its particular strengths- if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. However, if you struggle with analysis in a short period of time, memorizing these categories of examples ahead of time can give you a helpful checklist to go through when reading the SAT essay prompt and point you in the right direction. Below, we've chosentwo examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of prompts. This flexibility should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. Examples of Evidence The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence. There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in various official SAT Essay prompts. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes. Example Type 1: Facts and Statistics Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. How Can You Identify It? Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at hand- maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here are a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, "Let There Be Dark" by Paul Bogard: Example: 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way Example: In the UnitedStates and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from "Let There Be Dark": Example: Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen[.] Why Is It Persuasive? Facts and statistics are persuasive argument building techniques because the author isn't just making up reasons for why his/her argument could possibly be true- there's actually something (data, research, other events/information) that backs up the author's claim. In the case of the examples above, Bogard presents specific data about issues with light pollution (8 in 10 children won't be able to see the Milky Way, light in the sky increases 6% annually) to back up his statements that light pollution is real, then goes on to present further information that indicates light pollution is a problem (working the night shift puts humans at risk for cancer). By presenting information and facts, rather than just opinion and spin, Bogard empowers the reader to connect the dots on her own, which in turn gives the reader ownership over the argument and makes it more persuasive (since the reader is coming to the same conclusions on her own, rather than entirely relying on Bogard to tell her what to think). Example Type 2: Anecdotes Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. How Can You Identify It? An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event. When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an example of (part of) an anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Serengeti.Ã¢â¬ Why Is It Persuasive? Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because itÃ¢â¬â¢s more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true). In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point- probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. caribou, the hairy eyeball/Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. I find this caribou highly persuasive. Examples of Reasoning All authors use reasoning to some extent, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. Sometimes, though, the support for a claim on its own might not seem that persuasive- in those cases, an author might then choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type 3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. How Can You Identify It? A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When "some might claim," "however," or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, "The Digital Parent Trap" by Eliana Dockterman: Ã¢â¬Å"You could say some computer games develop creativity,Ã¢â¬ says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. Ã¢â¬Å"But I donÃ¢â¬â¢t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paint- a lot of really practical and creative endeavors.Ã¢â¬ But itÃ¢â¬â¢s not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. Why Is It Persuasive? So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussionÃ¢â¬â¢s going to be more Ã¢â¬Å"fair.Ã¢â¬ This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. A true discussion of the counterargument(as is present in Dockterman's article) willalso show a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument. And because the presence of a counterargument demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, the reader's more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that "it's not that simple" more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type 4: Explanation of Evidence In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the Ã¢â¬Å"thinkingÃ¢â¬ - the logic, the analysis - that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together." How Can You Identify It? Explanation of evidence is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects a claim to support and explains it, rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MITÃ¢â¬â¢s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports.The reason: engagement. On average, according to research cited by MIT, students can remember only 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear and 50% of what they see demonstrated. But when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re actually doing something themselves- in the virtual worlds on iPads or laptops- that retention rate skyrockets to 90%.This is a main reason researchers like Ito say the American Academy of PediatricsÃ¢â¬â¢ recommendation of a two-hour screen-time limit is an outdated concept: actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV. IMG_6800_v1, cropped/Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. Why Is It Persuasive? Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's "reasoning" is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And why is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data (Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV).This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told "Civilization leads to improvements in history" and having to take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements This final category of examples is the top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Example Type 5: Vivid Language Vivid language is truly the icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although it usually plays a larger role when the passage is lacking in more convincing facts or logic). Modal logic honey cake, cropped/Used under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0. Vivid language: truly the persuasive icing on your SAT essay prompt cake. Your delicious, delicious SAT cake. Mmm! How Can You Identify It? Vivid language is pretty easy to spot- it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to have purely functional purposes. Here are a couple of examples- the first is Paul Bogard again: Ã¢â¬ ¦show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of "a blanket of light" to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech "Beyond Vietnam- A Time To Break Silence": Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Why Is It Persuasive? Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes and draws them into the passage. If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase "demonic destructive suction tube" is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, "Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money," his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type 6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic. How Can You Identify It? Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader. This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Why Is It Persuasive? Appealing to the emotions, as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author. By describing how the war was causing "their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die," King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions, on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world. By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks. In the case of the Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). Review As you can see,these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics. This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how youÃ¢â¬â¢ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and anxiety when the test rolls around. DSC_1003, modified/Used under CC BY-NC 2.0. Eh? Eh? ROLLS around? Get it get it #sorrynotsorry What's Next? If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Start to scratch the surface with our 15 tips to improve your SAT essay score. Follow our step-by-step guide to writing a high-scoring essay and learn how to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Took the old SAT and not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about whatÃ¢â¬â¢s changed with the new SAT essay, then follow along as weinvestigate the SAT essay rubric. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. Want to learn more about the SAT but tired of reading blog articles? Then you'll love our free, SAT prep livestreams. Designed and led by PrepScholar SAT experts, these live video events are a great resource for students and parents looking to learn more about the SAT and SAT prep. Click on the button below to register for one of our livestreams today!
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Golf - 30 minutes practice plan for youth age 10 to 14 - Case Study Example Following this further, they are also concerned with the hypothetical, future along with ideological problems. Children who are between the ages 11-14 years old for boys and 10-13 years for girls have the following characteristics and skills including being rebellious in nature., the children find the sense of whom they are, development of a sense of self identity. From age 8 to14 years, the child becomes healthier, stronger and becomes more intellectual alert and derives imagination from what makes sense not what seems not make sense (Lillard, 24). At this stage, the child becomes more industrious and more aware of more than just the environment around him/her at this point he understands and differentiates sex groups male or female. At this stage the child attaches learning to an intellectual capacity, learning from people and books far from observation. At this stage of growth supervision becomes more prioritized, and rules should be set for proper moulding. This period is termed as the most crucial phase for the development of physical and psychological traits (Montessori, 32). Research has indicated that it is during childhood that most people are best at learning the physical skills. Long Term Player Development is defined by as (Lashley 23) as a systematic approach of developing and maximizing a participantÃ¢â¬â¢s potential and involvement in sport. The LTPD framework is aimed at defining optimal training and competition, as well as recovery throughout the athleteÃ¢â¬â¢s career. This enables them to attain their full potential and also increasing lifelong participation in physical activities such as golf, especially during their critical early years of their development (11-14 years old for boys and 10-13 years for girls). At this age of life, the child becomes healthier, stronger and becomes more intellectual alert and derives imagination from what makes sense not what seems not make
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Weekly Assignment No. 12 & Weekly Assignment No. 13 - Essay Example We are reviewing the performance of big contractor companies on the recent projects to select the one we would like to contract with. A business proposal is a kind of business plan when the business is in the conceptual stage. The scope of work, the resources and other business essentials have not yet been finalized. On the other hand, a business plan is the actual plan of a business once everything has been finalized. It has scenario details and is usually made for a period of five years. The business plan includes but is not limited to the products, the cost and benefit analysis, objectives and the marketing plan. Entrepreneurs need a business plan in order to concoct the management and leadership strategies. The business plan suggests the resources that the entrepreneur should arrange as well as the milestones that the entrepreneur has to achieve. The business plan provides the entrepreneur with a firm basis for his/her future decisions and an objective understanding of the business as a
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Problem of Our Community Essay Describe a problem in your community that affects you, how it affects you and what you believe should be done to solve the problem. As I was young child Ulaanbaatar city was beautiful small city. In winter there was enough dick snow to play on it. Just little number of cars had not made a big trouble. Ulaanbaatar city is located between 4 big mountains and initially build only for 400 thousand inhabitants. After several extreme cold and harsh winters, many farmers have lost their belongings such as livestock. Poor and unemployed people started to migrate to the city. Now the city has more than 1 million citizens. The ex-farmers were semi nomadic and they do not give up their living style even they migrated to the city. They live in yurts (Ã¢â¬Å"GerÃ¢â¬ , a tent covered with felt). Because of their missing documents and lack of working skills they can not find jobs in city. Of course most of them have not devices which connected to the central heating system and also waste water channels. Mongolians usually burn woods or coals in winter time to heat the gers. But because the new poor immigrants can not buy such things, they burn everything what they can found. For example wastes as old aged tires, chemicals and so on. Nowadays 60 percent of city inhabitants live in ger area using old traditional heating cabins (small box of iron, in which things burned). In winter time, the city is covered by smog. Nobody can breathe freely. Traffic is another issue. As I was a school pupil I had never seen traffic jam. But now I can see the spectacle everyday. Drivers are angry and cars are noisy. Some people sticks two hours just to drive 4-5 km. Most cars are older than 10 years or so called Ã¢â¬Å"secondÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"third handÃ¢â¬ cars imported from Japan and Korea. Because of its old age and environmental aspects these cars would not allowed being used in developed countries. Now Ulaanbaatar city is one of ugliest city in Asia with its smog, traffic and old cars. I see the problem in regional politics. Herders and citizens in countryside have only livestock and their livings are extremely depends on climate change. Furthermore, in rural villages the local government has no power to pursue own tax policy. Mongolia has a centralized budget system. All taxes paid must be collected in the finance ministry. Then it can be allocated among the provinces. But this way is ineffective and corrupt. Many politicians use this money just for next election campaign. In my opinion people in countryside should have more power to boost their markets in local area. They should have own taxation and local budget expenditure policy. Then they would not escape from their homeland by every negative change. In other side if the Mayor of my city (governor of the capital city) is being assigned by the central government. The Mayor usually works only for the party but not for people who live in the city. I really wish that we have the right to vote our mayor directly from us. Then we can control him better and push to concentrate on daily problems among the city inhabitants. How would this program benefit you and factor into your future plans? (Please limit your answer to 250 words. ) I see this program as greatest opportunity to my life. I hope I can have many friends during this program and I will see a lot of things that I can not see without this chance. First of all I can know learn the American education system American lifestyle. By the way, I will improve my English, which will increase my chance to have a well paid job in Mongolia. Mongolia is one freest country in Asia with its open economy. Bigger companies and universities seek for new employee who can speak in English fluently. In another side, I am very interested in social issues in my country. I think these problems are overall in the world. But how to solve the problems can be done in different way. I can see the American solutions. In Mongolian language there is phrase: Ã¢â¬Å"to see once is better than hearing about it 1000 timesÃ¢â¬ . That means you can hear about one thing many times and get some understanding. But if you see this you can feel it much better. After the program I will be able to share my experiences in USA by different way. I can lead studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ workshops and also write on the university journals. My diploma thesis will be more comparative and living. I can imagine that I join a political party to participate more actively in the society. So this program will give me a range of ideas and knowledge that I can implement in Mongolia. Mongolians say it is better to be rich on knowledge than on money.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A Universal Man When one takes a look at the world in which he currently lives, he sees it as being normal since it is so slow in changing. When an historian looks at the present, he sees the effects of many events and many profound people. Benjamin Franklin is one of these people. His participation in so many different fields changed the world immensely. He was a noted politician as well as respected scholar. He was an important inventor and scientist. Particularly interesting is his impact on the scientific world. Benjamin Franklin was a modest man who had had many jobs in his lifetime. This may help explain his large array of inventions and new methods of working various jobs. He did everything from making cabbage-growing more efficient to making political decisions to being the first person to study and chart the Gulf Stream movement in the Atlantic Ocean. This can explain why many people, including myself, saw him as a universal man. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The definition of a universal man is one who knows a little on ...
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
The importance of instruction for the resurgence of a society can non be denied. Harmonizing to Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, Ã¢â¬Å" the preparation of a human head is uncomplete without instruction, as instruction contributes a batch in doing adult male a right mind. Ã¢â¬ ( Khan, 2010 ) While doing determinations for the demand of instructors, the policy shapers and educational decision makers considers several factors. The entire figure of instructors required in a territory or metropolis or small town depends upon the registration of pupils in schools and colleges, the rate of instructors Ã¢â¬Ë retirement and bend over and the coveted teacher-student ratios required in that country. Harmonizing to Yasin, Ã¢â¬Å" factors such as high in-migration rates within a population or policies on cut downing category size besides contribute to the demand for new instructors. Ã¢â¬ ( Yasin, 1998 ) The present research is about the demand and supply of instructors at secondary school and college degree in Punjab. The research analyzes that whether the instruction section of Punjab has been able to supply quality instruction and fulfilled the demand of instructors in schools and colleges particularly in rural countries. The present research besides analyzes the enterprise of the present authorities for change overing Urdu Medium schools into English Medium and its relation to the demand and supply of instructors.Statement of the ProblemMeeting the demand of providing competent instructors to secondary schools and college degree in Punjab is indispensable for bettering the quality of instruction in these schools and colleges. These schools and colleges particularly the authorities establishments depend upon the instruction section for bettering the quality of instruction and for the proviso of professional and qualified instructors. The rural countries need particular attending f rom the instruction section to better the quality of instruction. The rural countries frequently lack competent instructors due to the location, low wage and fewer installations. Teachers hesitate from learning in such countries. The present authorities Ã¢â¬Ës enterprise of change overing Urdu Medium schools to English Medium has posed a new challenge for these schools. This research analyzes the demand and supply of instructors in schools and colleges of Punjab and provides feasible solution for making balance between demand and supply of instructors in Punjab.1.2 Purpose of the StudyThe intent of the survey is to research the balance between demand and supply of instructors in the secondary schools and college degree in Punjab. The research analyzes assorted grounds which lead to the demand of instructors in schools and colleges. The research provides a feasible solution for work outing the job of quality instruction and make fulling the vacancies of qualified instructors in sch ools and colleges of Pakistan. The paper besides assesses that whether the transition of Urdu Medium schools into English Medium has posed the demand for demand of the competent instructors.Scope of the ResearchThe present research is an extended survey on the demand and supply of qualified instructors at secondary and college degree in Punjab. The research covers the demands and demands of the schools and colleges in rural and urban countries for make fulling the spread of quality instruction and jobs faced by schools and colleges in the employment of competent instructors. The research besides analyzes the demand and supply of instructors in the Urdu Medium schools which have been converted to English Medium schools.1.4 Importance of the ResearchThis research would turn out to be an extended survey on solutions required for making balance between the demand and supply of instructors at secondary and college degree in Punjab. It has analyzed the demands of the schools and colleges particularly that of rural countries in supplying competent instructors to them. The research has besides emphasized the demand of competent instructors in the Urdu Medium schools which have been converted to English Medium.1.5 Justification of the ResearchThe subject of the research is appropriate, as carry oning research on the demand and supply of instructors has revealed utile facts related to the proviso of quality instruction to pupils at secondary and college degree. This research would be utile in long tally as it has provided solutions for get the better ofing the supply of competent instructors in Punjab.HypothesisRural and hapless communities in Pakistan face the greatest demand for instructors. They face extra challenges such as retaining of instructors, who may be attracted to the higher wages which are offered to them in metropoliss. The supply of instructors has greatly grown over the past 10 old ages. Keeping in position the demand for instructors, the supply of inst ructors must go on to increase. The demand for new instructors may differ by territory or small town and it depends upon the local population growing, instructors Ã¢â¬Ë retirements and bend over, in-migration rates and wages offered to them. With the transition of all Urdu Medium schools to English Medium schools in Punjab, the demand for qualified and professional instructors in these schools have increased.Literature ReviewAcademic ReviewsHarmonizing to Goel, Ã¢â¬Å" A adult male becomes a rational animate being when he becomes educated. Ã¢â¬ ( Goel, 2007 ) Education is indispensable for the moral and learning developments of worlds. It contributes to the national economic growing and poorness decrease. The population of Punjab histories for 60 % population of Pakistan. ( Sayed, 2007 ) There are about 64,000 educational institutes in Punjab, out of which 44,000 are primary schools. ( Sayed, 2005 ) There are over 500,000 employees in these institutes, out of which 350,000 are instructors. ( Sayed, 2005 ) There are about 11 million registrations in these institutes. ( Sayed, 2005 ) Harmonizing to John Wall, Country Director of World Bank ; Ã¢â¬Å" Improvements in instruction results in Punjab have the possible for country-wide impact. Ã¢â¬ ( McCutcheon, 2007 ) Decrease in poorness can be achieved by turn toing the root cause of poorness, that is ; deficiency of instruction and accomplishments. Harmonizing to a World Bank study, the quality of instruction provided by the populace sector in Pakistan is really low. This is due to Ã¢â¬Å" low competence of instructors, deficiency of quality text editions and larning stuffs, deficiency of classroom-based support for instructors, deficiency of the appraisal of pupils, hapless supervising and hapless sector administration and direction. Ã¢â¬ ( World Bank, Ã¢â¬Å" Third Punjab Education Ã¢â¬ 2006 ) . In rural countries, there is deficiency of qualified instructors, as they hesitate to work due to legion grounds such as deficiency of motive, low wages, deficiency of installations in schools and hapless on the job conditions. In 2003, the Punjab Education Sector Reform Program ( PESRP ) was launched for the intent of bettering quality, entree and administration in the instruction sector of Punjab. This plan comprised of supply-side enterprises including upgrading of schools and make fulling vacancies of instructors. A figure of reforms affecting instructors Ã¢â¬Ë enlisting, professional development of instructors, production of text editions and betterment in the scrutiny system were implemented. ( UNESCO, 2007 ) With the support of UNICEF and the National Rural Support Programme ( NRSP ) , PESRP has given high precedence to instructors in its new reform programme. ( McCutcheon, 2007 ) In order to run into the billowing demand of instructors, about 50,000 instructors have been hired since 2003. About 100,000 instructors have been trained through refresher classs in Ã¢â¬Å" child-centered instruction patterns. Ã¢â¬ ( McCutcheon, 2007 ) The authorities has taken effectual steps to better the quality of instruction in Punjab. The EFA ( Education for All ) National Plan of Action ( NPA ) 2015 figures out legion issues sing instructor supply, preparation and Supervision. ( UNESCO, 2007 ) The NPA emphasizes the demand for 118,000 instructors up to 2015 in order to run into the Universal Primary Education marks. ( UNESCO, 2007 ) There is deficiency of instructors in schools and colleges of Punjab due to decelerate replacing of retired instructors, less figure of instructors in primary schools and fewer instructors are recruited on lasting footing. The EFA NPA has suggested relaxation of makings for instructors in rural countries and for supplying specific inducements to them in order to make full the spread of instructors. ( UNESCO, 2007 ) By supplying in-service preparation to instructors, the quality of instruction will greatly better in these schools and colleges. The authorities is set uping Professional Development centres for the quality preparation of instructors. The authorities of Pakistan has converted all Urdu Medium schools in Punjab to English Medium schools. With this enterprise, the differentiation between two categories of instruction has been removed. This enterprise has chiefly being taken for viing with the globalized universe in the field of cognition. ( The News, 2010 ) The instructors of these schools have been provided developing through English Language classs. The preparation plans aims at bettering learning and English linguistic communication accomplishments of the instructors. The instructors have besides been offered heavy salary bundles. ( The News, 2010 ) The transition of schools has raised more demand for the supply of professional and competent instructors. The academic reappraisal has shown that the supply of instructors has grown over the past 10 old ages, but due to the uninterrupted addition in demand of instructors particularly in rural countries, the supply of instructors must go on to increase for the following decennary.1.8 Methodology1.8.1 ApproachThe research comprises of both Qualitative and Quantitative analysis. The research has gathered information with respect, but non restricted to the followers ; Analysis of the demand and supply of instructors in schools and colleges in Punjab. Problems faced by the instruction section in providing competent instructors to schools and colleges in Punjab. Problems faced by schools and colleges particularly in rural countries to make full the spread of quality instruction and to enroll competent instructors. Possible solutions for get bying with the demand of instructors in schools and colleges in Punjab. The Qualitative methodological analysis in the present research involves both primary every bit good as secondary beginnings. Primary beginning involves study of Pakistan Education Assessment System ( PEAS ) . Unstructured interview was conducted from 9 top directors of PEAS. Unstructured Interviews are utile for in-depth study, as Ã¢â¬Å" inquiries can be changed or adapted in order to run into the respondent Ã¢â¬Ës intelligence, understanding or belief. Ã¢â¬ ( The Psychology Wiki, 2010 ) Burns and Grove defines qualitative research as ; Ã¢â¬Å" The logical thinking procedure used in qualitative research involves perceptually seting pieces together to do wholes. From this procedure, significance is produced. However, because perceptual experience varies with the person, many different significances are possible. Ã¢â¬ ( Burns, Grove, 1993 ) . Data is normally gathered through less structured research instruments in qualitative research. Secondary beginning in the present rese arch comprises of reappraisal of books, diaries, articles, periodicals, current event intelligence, web stuff, etc. Quantitative research has been used by the research worker for deriving firsthand cognition about the demand and supply of instructors at secondary schools and college degree in Punjab. Harmonizing to Andrew Sanchez, Ã¢â¬Å" Quantitative research generates statistics through the usage of large-scale study research, utilizing methods such as questionnaires or interviews Ã¢â¬ . ( Sanchez, 2005 ) Purposive Sampling method had been used for choosing the sample. It uses a specific pre-defined group and does non affect random trying. Purposive Sampling method is a non-probability sampling method which is chosen Ã¢â¬Å" with a intent in head. Ã¢â¬ ( William, 2006 ) . The sample of the choice of 9 top directors from PEAS is rather appropriate for obtaining information about the demand and supply of instructors at secondary school degree and colleges in Punjab. Keeping in position the above mentioned definitions and accounts, it can be concluded that the usage of qualitative every bit good as quantitative methods for this research has been justified. These methods have provided elaborate survey of the research subject and have assisted in clear uping all issues related to the demand and supply of instructors at school and college degree in Punjab.1.8.2 Data Gathering MethodThe research involved aggregation of informations through primary and secondary beginnings, that is ; direct and indirect observation. Direct observation involved study of PEAS Department for obtaining positions of 9 top directors of the section. Indirect observation involved reappraisal of secondary beginnings such as books, diaries, articles, web stuffs, etc.1.8.3 Originality and Limitations of the DataValidity and singularity of the informations are guaranteed while capturing informations and executing analysis. The research emphasizes on the demand and supply of instr uctors at school and college degree in Punjab and make fulling the spread of quality instruction in these schools and colleges. As the cogency of the information is dependent upon the efficiency of the research worker, the research worker has been careful in maintaining the cogency of the informations during informations aggregation, analysis and while pulling decisions. Ethical issues are considered during the research procedure. In order to avoid disagreements, careful survey and analysis have been done. Data is limited to the subjects mentioned above.1.8.4 Research QuestionsThe major research inquiries of the present survey are as follows ; Is the instruction section of Punjab run intoing the demands of the demand of instructors at secondary school and college degree? How choice instruction can be provided to secondary school and college pupils in Punjab? Has the instruction section of Punjab taken stairss to carry through the spread of quality instruction in schools and colleges? Are schools and colleges in rural countries confronting jobs of supply of instructors? With the transition of Urdu Medium schools to English Medium, are these schools confronting the job of demand of competent instructors?Factual PositionPresently the schools and colleges of Punjab state are confronting a deficit in the supply of qualified and competent instructors particularly in rural countries. Teachers lack motive for traveling to rural countries due to low wage, backward location and deficiency of installations in these schools. As a consequence of this, the demand of instructors in rural countries has extremely increased. The deficiency of competent instructors is besides due to decelerate replacing of retired instructors and enlisting of instructors on impermanent footing. The determination of authorities for change overing Urdu Medium schools into English Medium has besides posed a demand for the enlisting of qualified and professional instructors. The authorities is taking stairss to carry through the spread of quality instruction and qualified instructors. Th is has been done by enrolling qualified instructors, increasing the wage of bing instructors and by increasing the accomplishments of the instructors through refresher classs in order to heighten their instruction accomplishments and English Language accomplishments.Section Ã¢â¬â 2: Situation AnalysisIn this subdivision, the research worker analyzes the informations obtained from the study of Pakistan Education Assessment System ( PEAS ) . The study involved aggregation of informations through direct observation, i.e ; interview. A sample size of 9 top directors of PEAS was selected for interview. Unstructured interviews were carried out from the top directors. The sentiment and positions of the directors have been obtained related to the demand and supply of instructors at secondary school and college degree in Punjab. Facts extracted from the interviews have been analyzed to obtain the findings.2.1 Opinions and positions of top directors about the demand and supply of instructo rs at secondary and college degree in Punjab2.1.1 Quality of instruction at authorities and private schools97 % of the top directors of PEAS informed that the quality of instruction provided to pupils of authorities schools is non satisfactory. These schools lack competent instructors, educational stuff and installations. The conditions of schools in rural countries are worst. Many schools have been closed in rural countries as these schools lack competent instructors and basic installations. However, the quality of instruction at private schools is satisfactory. These schools have qualified and competent instructors.Figure 1: Opinion of top director of PEAS about the quality of instruction in schools of rural countries2.1.2 Causes of famine of instructors in rural countries95 % of the top directors believed that instructors hesitate to work in rural countries due to hapless on the job conditions and low wages. The top direction suggested that instructors can be motivated to work in rural countries by increasing the wages of bing instructors, supplying good salary bundles to the new instructors and by supplying text editions and basic installations to these schools. Teachers should be recruited on lasting footing instead than on impermanent footing. If the instructors are provided inducements and good wage bundles they will be able to execute their occupations in these countries.2.1.3 Performance of authorities and private colleges98 % of the top directors of PEAS believed that every bit compared to the authorities schools, the public presentation of authorities colleges in urban countries is satisfactory. The authorities colleges have competent and qualified instructors in urban countries. However, the colleges in rural countries lack competent instructors.Figure 2: Opinion of Top Directors of PEAS Regarding Quality of Education and Competent Teachers in Government Colleges in Urban Areas2.1.4 Major ground behind deficiency of instructors90 % of the top direc tors of PEAS informed that deficiency of instructors is besides due to the fact that most people do non fall in the profession of learning as they consider it a low paid and an inferior occupation. Some people merely fall in this profession as a last resort. As a consequence of this, they lack motive to carry through their duties. When they find any good chance, they leave the instruction profession.2.1.5 Carry throughing the spread of quality instruction in freshly converted English Medium schoolsWhen the positions of the top directors were taken sing the transition of Urdu Medium schools into English Medium, all of them agreed that it is a good enterprise from the authorities for taking the differentiation between two categories of instruction. Students analyzing in Urdu Medium schools are frequently considered as inferior to English Medium. Furthermore, when these pupils reach higher categories, they face trouble in understanding scientific discipline topics. The top directors be lieved that the spread of quality instruction in these schools can be fulfilled by supplying instruction and English linguistic communication accomplishments to the instructors through on-the-job preparation. This spread can besides be filled by enrolling competent instructors on lasting footing.2.2 FindingssThe findings of the study are in consistent with that of literature reappraisal, as it has shown that rural schools and colleges of Pakistan face the greatest demand for instructors. The status of authorities colleges in urban countries is rather satisfactory as these schools have competent instructors. The demand for the supply of instructors has greatly grown over the past 10 old ages. Keeping in position the demand for a big figure of instructors, the supply of competent instructors must go on to increase. The demand for new instructors may differ by territory or small town and it may depends upon the local population growing, instructors Ã¢â¬Ë retirements, instructors Ã¢â ¬Ë turnover rate, instructors Ã¢â¬Ë in-migration rates and wages offered to them. With the transition of all Urdu Medium schools to English Medium schools in Punjab, the demand for qualified and professional instructors in these schools have greatly increased.Section Ã¢â¬â 3: Decision and Recommendations3.1 DecisionThe demand and supply of instructors can be balanced if the Numberss of vacancies of instructors are filled in by the figure of instructors needed to make full these places. The rural schools and colleges of Pakistan are confronting the deficit of the supply of qualified and competent instructors. These educational institutes besides lack basic installations and educational stuff. Teachers hesitate to work in rural countries due to low wage and hapless on the job conditions. There is besides deficit of instructors due to the fact that the profession of instruction is considered as a low paid and inferior occupation. Peoples merely fall in this profession as a last r esort. On the occupation preparation is besides required for the instructors to heighten their instruction accomplishments. With the transition of Urdu Medium schools into English Medium schools, the demand for qualified and competent instructors has risen. There is demand for enlisting of professional and qualified instructors in order to raise the quality of instruction in schools and colleges particularly authorities schools and colleges in rural countries. With the uninterrupted addition in the population and accent of the authorities on instruction, the demand for supply of more instructors will farther increase.3.2 RecommendationsBased upon qualitative and quantitative analysis following recommendations have been suggested: In order to actuate instructors, they should be provided good wage bundles and other inducements. Teachers should be recruited on a lasting footing instead than on impermanent footing in authorities schools and colleges. The position of instructors demands to be raised in the society, as instruction should non be considered as an inferior occupation. Teachers working in rural countries should be provided particular salary bundles and inducements. Teachers need on-the-job preparation in order to heighten their instruction accomplishments. The instructors of the Urdu Medium schools which have been converted into English Medium schools needs to be trained in English linguistic communication accomplishments. There is besides demand for enlisting of competent instructors in these schools.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
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